Here you will find materials related to the stereoscopic analysis of video footage employed by Manoukis et al (2009) to study swarms of Anopheles gambiae. You can read that work by following the some of the links below.


Male mosquitoes swarm to find mates, but the characteristics of these swarms have not often been quantitatively analyzed in the field. This site includes information on a simple method used recently to localize individual Anopheles gambiae in a swarm via stereoscopic image analysis of video footage swarms recorded in Doneguebougou, Mali. The methods described here represent a streamlining of possibly the most basic method for localizing objects in space in the hope that other researchers will be able to apply the method for studying fundamental questions about flying insects or other taxa.

To understand the method and its limitations you should read the "Description of a Method for Localizing Swarming Mosquitoes in 3D Space" and the original Manoukis et al paper ("Structure and Dynamics of Male Swarms of Anopheles gambiae") linked in the References section below.


Manoukis et al used various third-party programs to analyze our data. These are cited in the document below ("Description of a Method for Localizing Swarming Mosquitoes in 3D Space") including URLs for download. The researchers also developed two programs to facilitate insect localization, which they make available through the exon web site: 1) An R function to calculate positions from stereo measurements, called calcxyz.R and 2) a convenience plugin for ImageJ which may be used to easily gather these data (called StereoPointPicker, a small modification of PointPicker by Philippe Thevenaz). Click HERE to download an archive file containing both programs and a short explanation of how to use them.

Visualizations of Swarms

These are some supplementary materials resulting from the Manoukis et al 2009 paper. You can view them by clicking HERE.

References and citation

A detailed description of the method and some results are in the following document:

Manoukis, N.C. 2008. "Description of a method for localizing swarming mosquitoes and other insects in 3D space with visualizations". Available from Nature Precedings (2008)

If you use the software distributed on this page to estimate 3D positions, please cite Manoukis et al, referencing the following paper:

Manoukis, N.C., Diabate, A., Abdoulaye, A., Diallo, M., Dao, A., Yaro, A.S., Ribeiro, J.M.C. and Lehmann, T. 2009. Structure and Dynamics of Male Swarms of Anopheles gambiae. In Press, Journal of Medical Entomology PDF